In our interconnected digital world, seamless integration is key to unlocking unparalleled efficiency. Explore the art and science of integrating Salesforce Apex with various applications. Whether you're a novice or a seasoned developer, this guide will illuminate pathways to enhance your application's synergy, ensuring a smoother and more productive workflow.

In this article, we delve into Salesforce Apex, integration importance, methods, and best practices.

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Salesforce Apex is a powerful programming language that allows developers to create and customize applications on the Salesforce platform. Apex enables developers to implement complex business logic, manipulate data, integrate with external systems, and create custom user interfaces. It has Java-like syntax and runs on the platform, which provides a secure and scalable environment for executing Apex code.

Apex Overview

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Apex code is compiled into abstract instructions and saved as metadata on the platform. When Apex is triggered by an end-user action, the platform retrieves and interprets the instructions and returns the result. The execution time is similar to standard platform requests.

The need for integrating Salesforce Apex with other applications arises from the fact that Salesforce is not a standalone system. It is designed to work with other systems to provide a complete view of a customer’s data and improve business performance. For example, a company might use Salesforce to manage its customer relationships, but it might also use an ERP system to collect its financial data, a marketing automation tool to run campaigns, and a collaboration platform to communicate with teams. In order to get a complete view of the customer, streamline workflows, increase productivity, and enhance customer engagement, the company would need to integrate Salesforce with these other systems using Apex.

Related Reading: Salesforce Connect: A Beginner's Guide

Understanding Salesforce Apex

Salesforce Apex is a powerful, strongly typed, object-oriented programming language that enables developers to add complex business logic to their Salesforce applications. While it offers the flexibility to create sophisticated automations and integrations, mastering Apex requires a significant investment in developer expertise and time. The intricacies of Apex programming, with its Java-like syntax and execution on the Salesforce platform, demand meticulous attention to detail and a comprehensive understanding of Salesforce's architecture and API capabilities. This complexity is compounded when integrating with external systems, which often have their own unique APIs and data models.

Apex is efficient for scenarios that exceed the capabilities of Salesforce's declarative tools, such as Process Builder and Flow. However, the efficiency comes at the cost of increased complexity and the need for specialized knowledge. Developers must not only write the code but also ensure that it adheres to the platform's best practices and governor limits, which are enforced to maintain performance and multi-tenancy on the Salesforce platform.

Role of Salesforce Apex in CRM

In the realm of CRM, Apex enables the execution of complex transactions and business processes that go beyond the out-of-the-box features of Salesforce. It is instrumental in:

  • Automating intricate tasks and workflows that require custom logic.
  • Building bespoke objects and fields tailored to specific business needs.
  • Crafting custom user interfaces for a more personalized user experience.
  • Integrating Salesforce with a myriad of other systems, which often involves complex logic and handling of various data formats and communication protocols.

While Apex is a robust tool for these purposes, Salesforce also offers alternative automation tools like Process Builder and Flow. These tools are designed for less complex automation needs and allow for quicker, codeless solutions, which can be more suitable for businesses without extensive coding resources.

Benefits of Salesforce Apex for Businesses

The benefits of Salesforce Apex are numerous, yet they come with the caveat of complexity:

  • Accelerated Development: Apex's Java-like syntax and comprehensive testing framework can speed up development for those well-versed in the language. However, this acceleration is relative to the developer's proficiency with Apex and the complexity of the integration being undertaken.
  • Greater Flexibility and Control: Apex's ability to handle complex business logic, calculations, and custom integrations provides developers with a high degree of control. Yet, this control necessitates a deep understanding of both Salesforce and the systems to which it is being connected.
  • Higher Quality and Reliability: The requirement for a minimum of 75% test coverage before deployment to production ensures that Apex code is robust and reliable. However, achieving this level of coverage requires thorough testing and validation, adding to the development effort.
  • Lower Cost and Maintenance: While Apex code is hosted on Salesforce servers, reducing infrastructure costs, the need for ongoing maintenance and updates by skilled developers can result in higher operational costs over time.
  • Security: Running on a secure platform, Apex provides strong data protection features. Nonetheless, developers must be diligent in implementing security best practices within their code to prevent vulnerabilities.

In summary, Salesforce Apex is a potent tool for developers to create highly customized solutions within the Salesforce platform. However, the complexity of developing and maintaining Apex integrations should not be underestimated, particularly when compared to alternative solutions like, which offers a more accessible and less technically demanding approach to Salesforce data integration.

The Basics of Salesforce Apex Integrations

Salesforce Apex integrations serve as a bridge between the Salesforce platform and external applications, utilizing web services to facilitate this connection. While integration is essential for maximizing the capabilities of Salesforce, it is not without its challenges.

Why is integration crucial for optimizing Salesforce functionalities?

Salesforce's robust CRM capabilities can be significantly enhanced through integration. It allows businesses to tailor Salesforce to their unique processes and systems, creating a more cohesive and efficient IT ecosystem. Integration can:

  • Automate complex tasks and workflows, reducing manual effort.
  • Enhance data accuracy and consistency across systems.
  • Elevate the customer experience by providing a unified view of customer interactions.

Common applications integrated with Salesforce Apex

Apex is versatile and can be used to integrate Salesforce with a variety of external applications and systems. However, these integrations often require custom development and a deep understanding of both the Salesforce platform and the external application's API. Common integrations include:

  • ELT Platforms: While Apex can be used to integrate with ELT platforms, such as, the process can be complex and time-consuming, requiring specialized knowledge of both systems.
  • Marketing Automation Tools: Tools like Marketo or HubSpot may offer Apex-based integrations on the AppExchange, but creating custom Apex integrations for other tools can be intricate and requires skilled developers.
  • Accounting and Financial Software: Integrating with systems like QuickBooks or ERP solutions can streamline financial data management but often necessitates custom Apex code, which adds to the complexity.
  • Customer Support Systems: Systems like Zendesk or ServiceNow can be integrated for real-time customer data access, but this usually involves navigating pre-built Apex integrations or undertaking custom development.
  • E-commerce Platforms: Synchronizing with e-commerce systems such as Shopify or Magento is possible with Apex, but it requires a detailed understanding of both the platform and the e-commerce system's API.
  • Payment Gateways: Apex can facilitate REST or SOAP callouts to services like PayPal or Stripe, but this involves complex security and transaction handling considerations.
  • Social Media Platforms: Connecting with APIs from Facebook, Twitter, or LinkedIn requires custom Apex code, which can be challenging to maintain and scale.

In contrast to the complexity of developing and maintaining custom Apex integrations, offers a streamlined, no-code platform that simplifies the process of connecting Salesforce with various external systems.'s user-friendly interface and pre-built connectors allow businesses to set up ETL, Reverse ETL, and CDC processes with minimal technical expertise, transforming the way Salesforce data is integrated and utilized.

As businesses seek to leverage their Salesforce data more effectively and efficiently, the contrast between the technical demands of Apex and the ease of use offered by becomes increasingly stark.'s platform enables organizations to bypass the steep learning curve and resource investment associated with Apex, offering a more accessible and scalable solution for Salesforce data integration.

Methods to Integrate Salesforce Apex with Other Applications

In this section, we will discuss three methods to integrate Salesforce Apex with other applications: web services, Salesforce API, and third-party integration tools.

Web Services Integration (SOAP and RESTful Services)

Apex Web services are software components that provide functionality over the internet using standard protocols. Salesforce supports Apex REST and SOAP APIs, which allow you to create custom web services on the platform using Apex code. Two common types of web services for integration are SOAP and RESTful services.

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)

SOAP is a protocol that uses XML to exchange structured data between applications. SOAP web services use a predefined contract, called a WSDL (Web Services Description Language), that defines the operations, inputs, outputs, and data types of the service. SOAP web services also support security features such as encryption and authentication, and they can handle complex data structures and business logic.

REST (Representational State Transfer)

REST is an architectural style that uses HTTP methods (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) to perform operations on resources identified by URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). RESTful web services use JSON or XML to exchange data between applications. RESTful integrations are lightweight, easy to use, and widely adopted. RESTful APIs are suitable for modern web and mobile applications. RESTful web services are stateless, meaning they do not store any information about the client or the session on the server side.

Salesforce API

The Salesforce API is a collection of interfaces designed to enable external applications to interact with and manage data and metadata on the Salesforce platform. For integration purposes, key Salesforce APIs include:

  • SOAP API: Offers a standardized protocol for communication, particularly suitable for scenarios requiring strong typing and strict standards.
  • REST API: Provides a lightweight and flexible approach to integration, ideal for scenarios where simplicity and efficiency are paramount.
  • Bulk API: Designed for processing high volumes of data, Bulk API is well-suited for handling large-scale data integration tasks.
  • Streaming API: Enables real-time data updates, making it suitable for applications that require live data feeds.

Use Cases and Benefits

The Salesforce API can be used for various purposes, such as:

  • Data integration: Import or export data between Salesforce and other applications, such as databases, spreadsheets, or ELT platforms. For example, the Bulk API can be used to load or delete large amounts of data in batches, while the Streaming API can be used to receive real-time notifications of data changes.
  • Application integration: Integrate Salesforce with other applications that provide functionality or features that are not available on the platform. For example, the SOAP API or the REST API can be used to invoke actions or workflows on external systems, such as marketing automation tools, accounting software, or customer support systems.

Common Salesforce API methods

There are different types of Salesforce APIs that offer different methods for interacting with Salesforce data and metadata. Some of the common Salesforce API methods are:

Common Salesforce API methods

API Name


Data Format








JSON, XML, Custom










Tooling API


JSON, XML, Custom

Synchronous or Asynchronous

Bulk API




Metadata API


ZIP (containing XML files)


Streaming API




Pub/Sub API




While these methods showcase the versatility of Salesforce Apex, they also highlight the complexity involved in leveraging Apex for integrations. This complexity is what makes's no-code platform a game-changer for businesses looking to integrate Salesforce with other applications efficiently.

You can learn more about each API method in the Salesforce Developers API Library:

Third-party Integration Tools

Third-party integration tools are transformative solutions that enable seamless connectivity between Salesforce and a myriad of other applications. These platforms are designed to minimize the need for custom coding, thereby reducing the dependency on the intricate knowledge of Salesforce's native API and the external systems in question.

The Complexity of Custom Apex Development

Custom Apex development, while robust and highly customizable, requires a significant investment in developer expertise and time. The complexity of writing and maintaining custom integrations with Apex can be daunting, as it necessitates a deep understanding of the Salesforce platform, as well as the APIs of the external systems being integrated. This complexity is not just in the initial development but also in the ongoing maintenance and updates that such custom integrations require. Simplifying Salesforce Integration

In contrast, emerges as a particularly compelling option for businesses looking to streamline their Salesforce integration processes. Here's why stands out:

  • Ease of Use: offers a no-code, drag-and-drop interface that democratizes the integration process, making it accessible to users without deep technical expertise. This ease of use significantly reduces the time and resources typically required for custom Apex development.
  • Pre-built Connectors: With an array of pre-built connectors, simplifies the integration of Salesforce with other systems. These connectors allow for quick setup and configuration, bypassing the complex and error-prone process of writing custom Apex code.
  • Two-way Salesforce Integration:'s two-way Salesforce-to-Salesforce connector is a game-changer, enabling not just data extraction but also the transformation and reintegration of data back into Salesforce. This feature is particularly beneficial for businesses that operate multiple Salesforce instances or require complex data synchronization.
  • Reduced Complexity and Maintenance: By abstracting the underlying integration logic, reduces the complexity and maintenance burden associated with custom Apex integrations. This means businesses can focus on leveraging their data rather than worrying about the technicalities of integration.
  • Security and Compliance: places a strong emphasis on security, ensuring that data pipelines are secure and compliant with enterprise-grade standards, which can be a challenging aspect of custom Apex development.

Choosing the Right Tool

While there are several third-party tools in the market, distinguishes itself by offering a balance of simplicity, power, and security. It addresses the common pain points of custom Apex development and provides a robust alternative that can save businesses time and money while reducing the risk of errors.

Considerations and Limitations

Despite the advantages, it's important to acknowledge that third-party tools like may come with their own set of considerations, such as subscription costs and the need to adapt to a new platform. However, the trade-off often favors the use of such tools due to the significant reduction in complexity and the ability to rapidly adapt to changing business needs.

Here are a couple additional resources to check out when choosing third-party integration tools:

For businesses that require a powerful, user-friendly, and scalable solution for Salesforce integration, represents a strategic investment that can lead to long-term efficiency and success.

Best Practices for Salesforce Apex Integrations

To ensure smooth integration with other systems and data sources, you need to follow some best practices and avoid some common pitfalls. Here are some best practices:

  • Plan your integration carefully: Before you start coding, it’s important to plan your integration thoroughly. This involves identifying the systems and data sources you want to connect and defining the specific goals you want to achieve.
  • Utilize the Salesforce API: The Salesforce API is the official way to integrate Salesforce with other systems. It offers a wide range of functions that allow you to access and manipulate Salesforce data effectively.
  • Write modular code: Breaking down your integration code into smaller, reusable modules can greatly enhance its maintainability and ease of debugging. This approach promotes code reusability and makes it easier to identify and fix issues.
  • Thoroughly test your integration: Before deploying your integration to a production environment, it’s crucial to test it thoroughly in a sandbox or development environment. Rigorous testing helps identify and resolve any issues or bugs before they impact your live environment.
  • Regularly monitor your integration: Once your integration is deployed, monitor it regularly to ensure it’s functioning as expected. Monitoring helps identify any performance issues or errors, allowing you to take proactive measures to address them.

By following these best practices, you can create Salesforce Apex integrations that are efficient, secure, and reliable.

Common pitfalls to avoid in Salesforce Apex integrations include:

  • Overreliance on Custom Code: It's essential to leverage's configuration options before resorting to custom code. This approach saves time, effort, and maintenance costs.
  • Skipping Prototype Development: Building a prototype allows you to validate integration requirements, identify issues, and gather early feedback from stakeholders and users.
  • Customization of Automatically Generated Screens: While tools like Lightning Connect generate screens for data access, customizing these screens to align with business needs and user expectations is crucial for a better user experience.
  • Understanding Reused Code: Reusing code is beneficial, but it's vital to thoroughly review, document, and test reused code, especially if it originates from third-party sources.
  • Prioritizing Data Quality and Security: Ensure data quality by maintaining accuracy, completeness, consistency, and reliability. Implement robust security measures, including encryption, authentication, authorization, and auditing, to safeguard data against unauthorized access, modification, or deletion.

By addressing these pitfalls, you can enhance the success and efficiency of your Salesforce Apex integrations.

Case Studies: Successful Salesforce Apex Integrations

Client Overview: National Council on Aging (NCOA)

NCOA is a national leader dedicated to helping people aged 60+ overcome the challenges of aging. With a mission to improve the lives of older adults, especially those struggling, NCOA collaborates with nonprofits, governments, and businesses to enhance the health and economic security of 10 million older adults by 2020.


NCOA faced the challenge of efficiently tracking and processing payroll records for thousands of senior citizens participating in their programs. The complexity arose from the need to quickly update and verify information, enforce entry limits verified by Senior Managers, and accommodate different organizations with varying cadences for entering timesheets.


  • Automated Payroll Record Association: Developed a method leveraging a custom object and APEX Triggers to automatically associate payroll records with the correct start and end dates based on each partner organization’s unique payroll schedule.
  • User-Friendly Visualforce Page: Created a Visualforce page with intuitive popups, allowing users to make changes and approve individual payroll entries seamlessly. This enhanced the user experience and simplified the process.
  • Validation System for Approval: Implemented a robust validation system to ensure that all payroll entries were approved, with a specific requirement that at least 75% of them must be approved by Senior Managers. This ensured accountability and compliance.
  • Enhanced User Experience: Ensured a positive user experience by incorporating popups and visual flags that provided at-a-glance insights into the state of the pay period. This feature allowed users to quickly assess and manage the status of payroll entries.


The Salesforce Communities solution transformed NCOA's payroll and timesheet management, offering the following benefits:

  • Efficiency: Automated payroll record association streamlined processes, reducing manual efforts and minimizing errors.
  • User-Friendly Interface: The Visualforce page with popups enhanced user interaction, making it easy for users to navigate and manage payroll entries.
  • Compliance: The validation system enforced approval requirements, ensuring accountability and compliance with managerial approvals.
  • Transparency: Visual flags provided clear insights into the status of the pay period, allowing for quick assessments and decision-making.

In the context of the NCOA's successful Salesforce Apex integration, the choice to leverage Apex reflects the strategic alignment of the programming language with the specific demands of their payroll and timesheet management. The decision to use Apex is indicative of its versatility and robust capabilities, particularly well-suited for scenarios that demand complex data associations, real-time user interactions, and stringent validation processes. 


In summary, while Salesforce Apex is a potent and specialized programming language for crafting integrations within the Salesforce ecosystem, its complexity should not be underestimated. Apex's powerful capabilities come with a steep learning curve and require a considerable investment in developer expertise:

  • Inherent Complexity: Despite its Java-like syntax, Apex is a complex language that demands a thorough understanding of the Salesforce environment, making it less accessible for those without a programming background.
  • Maintenance Overhead: Apex integrations necessitate ongoing maintenance, version updates, and compliance with Salesforce's governor limits, which can be resource-intensive.
  • Developer-Dependent: The development and troubleshooting of Apex code typically require experienced developers, which can lead to bottlenecks and increased project timelines.

On the other hand, stands out as a beacon of efficiency and simplicity in the realm of Salesforce integrations:

  • No-Code Interface:'s no-code, drag-and-drop interface dramatically simplifies the integration process, enabling users to create and manage integrations without deep technical expertise.
  • Pre-Built Connectors: With an extensive library of pre-built connectors, facilitates quick and reliable connections between Salesforce and a multitude of other systems, sidestepping the intricacies of manual coding.
  • Automation and Efficiency: automates the data integration workflow, offering features like ETL, ELT, CDC, Reverse ETL, and API Management, which streamline data processes and enhance productivity.
  • Scalability and Flexibility: scales with your business, accommodating a growing number of integrations and data volume without the need for additional coding or infrastructure adjustments.
  • Cost-Effective: By reducing the reliance on specialized developers and speeding up integration deployment, can be a more cost-effective solution over time compared to custom Apex development.

In light of these considerations, emerges as a strategic choice for organizations aiming to harness the full potential of Salesforce integrations without the complexity and overhead of custom development. It is an invitation to elevate your business with data-driven insights and operational efficiency.

We invite you to explore the opportunities that offers for your organization’s data integration needs. You can boost your business into a new era of data-driven decision-making and operational excellence. Unlock the potential of Salesforce Apex integrations with and schedule a live demo with our experts or start a 14-day free trial.


What is Salesforce Apex used for?

Salesforce Apex is used for customizing and extending the functionality of Salesforce. It is a powerful programming language that allows developers to create custom applications, triggers, and workflows within the Salesforce platform. Apex can be used to automate business processes, integrate Salesforce with other systems, or build unique user interfaces. It plays a vital role in adapting Salesforce to meet specific business needs and enhancing the user experience of Salesforce.

How do I use web services with Salesforce Apex?

There are two types of web services available in Salesforce Apex: REST and SOAP. REST services use HTTP methods like GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE for resource operations, while SOAP services rely on XML messages for data exchange.

To use web services in Salesforce Apex:

  1. Create a global Apex class with methods annotated with @WebService or @RestResource depending on your preference.
  2. Declare the class and methods as global to enable external access.
  3. Test your web service using tools like Workbench or Postman.
  4. Generate a WSDL file for SOAP or use the URL mapping for REST.
  5. Develop a client application using the SOAP WSDL file or REST HTTP methods.
  6. Consider Salesforce governor limits and adhere to best practices for effective integration.

Are third-party integration tools safe for Salesforce Apex?

Third-party integration tools are safe for Salesforce Apex if they adhere to security best practices and maintain data protection standards. It's essential to evaluate the reputation, compliance certifications, and security measures of third-party tools before implementing them. Ensure they follow Salesforce's guidelines for integration and data security to safeguard your Apex applications and sensitive data.

Which Salesforce API methods are popular for integration?

Some popular Salesforce API methods for integration are:

  • REST API: Use HTTP methods in JSON or XML to access objects, metadata, and Apex.
  • Apex REST: Create web services on using Apex annotations and parameters.
  • SOAP API: Use XML messages and web service standards to access objects, metadata, and Apex.
  • Apex SOAP: Create web services on using Apex annotations and parameters.
  • Bulk API: Load or delete large data batches asynchronously using bulk operations.
  • Streaming API: Receive real-time notifications of data changes by subscribing to topics or events.

Choose the appropriate API method based on your integration needs and data volume. You can also combine different APIs to achieve optimal results.

How do I avoid common pitfalls in Salesforce Apex integrations?

Some common pitfalls in Salesforce Apex integrations are:

  • Not Bulkifying Code: Failing to write code that can efficiently handle multiple records, resulting in performance issues. To avoid this, use collections such as lists, sets, and maps to store data, and use loops and triggers to process them in batches.
  • Hard-Coding IDs: Using hard-coded IDs in the code can lead to issues when environments change. To avoid this, use custom settings or metadata types to store IDs, and reference them dynamically in the code.
  • Neglecting Data Quality and Security: Not prioritizing data quality and security, risking data integrity and compliance. To avoid this, use validation rules and formulas to enforce data quality, use encryption and masking to protect sensitive data, and use sharing settings and profiles to control data access.

What are the key benefits of integrating applications with Salesforce Apex?

Key benefits of integrating applications with Salesforce Apex include:

  • Creation of custom Salesforce objects, triggering object lifecycles, implementing unique business logic, making external SOAP or REST API calls, and establishing custom endpoints for application integration.
  • Utilization of utilities for JSON and XML processing, data security, encoding, and a versatile utility for handling regular expressions with text strings.
  • Development of mobile applications or external clients using the Salesforce REST API or Apex REST, employing simple HTTP methods and supporting JSON or XML formats.
  • A wide array of integration tools and solutions to choose from, tailored to your specific needs and use cases.

Are there any limitations to Salesforce Apex integrations?

Salesforce Apex integrations have some limitations, such as:

  • Flows: Flows may not support all types of inbound integrations. For example, flows have issues with dynamic record choice sets, multi-select picklist values, and owner fields on screen flows.
  • Apex Limits: Apex code inherits Apex platform limits, such as CPU time and heap size. You should also consider the availability of time slots in the GMT Time Zone for scheduled or batch Apex jobs.
  • Callouts: Apex Callouts have limits on the number, size, and duration of outbound requests and responses. Some callouts need OAuth or other authentication. Use best practices to optimize callouts.
  • API Requests: API requests have limits based on edition and license type. You can find the API request limits in the Salesforce API documentation.
  • Performance implications and optimization techniques: Apex integrations can impact the performance of your Salesforce org. You should use best practices to improve the efficiency and reliability of your inbound and outbound integrations, such as bulkification, asynchronous Apex, caching, testing, and debugging.

These limitations and best practices require careful planning and adherence for successful integrations.

How do RESTful services differ from SOAP in Salesforce integrations?

RESTful services and SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) are two distinct approaches to web services used in Salesforce integrations. They differ in several key aspects:

Difference Between RESTful and SOAP





Strict protocol that defines message structure, transport, and security

Architectural style that does not enforce any protocol, but uses existing protocols such as HTTP

Message Format


Various formats (e.g., JSON, XML)


More complex

Simpler and easier to understand


Typically, stateful



Built-in security features such as WS-Security

Relies on standard web security such as SSL/TLS or OAuth 2.0


Can have larger message size and slower processing due to XML parsing and validation

Typically, more lightweight and faster due to smaller message size and simpler parsing

Ease of Use

More setup effort and requires a WSDL document to describe the service

Easier to set up and use and does not require a WSDL document

Use Cases

Enterprise-level integrations that require high security, reliability, and functionality

Web and mobile applications that require scalability, flexibility, and performance

Please note that the choice between SOAP and RESTful services depends on specific project requirements and preferences. 

Which third-party tools are recommended for Salesforce Apex integrations?

You can choose the third-party tool that suits your data integration needs. Here are some popular third-party tools for Salesforce data integrations:

  • Cloud-native ETL with 100+ connectors, including Salesforce-to-Salesforce.
  • Jitterbit: iPaaS with connectors and API management for various apps and devices.
  • Talend: Data integration and quality platform with real-time integration and batch options.
  • Fivetran: Data integration platform that moves Salesforce data into data warehouses.

Can I customize Salesforce Apex integrations according to my business needs?

Yes, Salesforce Apex integrations can be customized according to your business needs. Apex allows you to extend the functionality of Salesforce and integrate it with other systems. You can use Apex to develop custom integrations that meet your specific requirements, such as:

  • Call external web services and process responses.
  • Create custom web services that expose Salesforce data and logic.
  • Use custom settings to store reusable data.
  • Use Apex triggers, classes, and methods for custom logic and workflows.